Constitution of the Society for Marine Mammalogy
As amended by vote of the membership in May 2010
Article I. Name. The name of the society is The Society for Marine Mammalogy (hereafter referred to as the Society).
Article II. Purposes. The objectives of the Society are to:
- Evaluate and promote the educational, scientific and managerial advancement of marine mammal science;
- Gather and disseminate to members of the Society, the public and public and private institutions, scientific, technical and management information through publications and meetings;
- Provide scientific information, as required, on matters related to the conservation and management of marine mammal resources.
Article III. Founding. The Society was founded at San Francisco, California, U.S.A., on December 15, 1981, and incorporated as a non-profit entity under United States law on 17 February 1989, at San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
Article IV. Membership. Any person is qualified for Full Membership who is a professional in natural science or the management, husbandry, conservation or training of marine mammals.
Full Members pay dues, have voting rights, receive the Society's journal, may be elected to office and may serve as members of Standing Committees.
Any person who is actively enrolled in a degree-granting program at an institution of higher education qualifies for Student Membership. Student Members pay dues, have voting rights, receive the Society's journal, and may serve as student members of Standing Committees. Graduate students qualify for Full Membership provided they pay Full Membership fees.
Graduate Student Full Members may be elected as a Student Member-At-Large of the Board of Governors.
All who are interested in the aims of the Society qualify for Associate Membership. Associate members may not vote and may not serve as officers or members of standing committees but have all other rights.
An Honorary Member is a member recognized for distinguished service to the field of marine mammalogy, as recommended unanimously by the Board of Governors, and elected by two-thirds of the voting members. Honorary Members have all the privileges of full members but are exempt from dues.
An Emeritus Member is any member who is retired from his or her professional career, is older than 60-years and has been a Full Member of the Society for one or more years. Emeritus members qualify for all privileges of Full membership.
Any organization or institution may become an Institutional Member. Institutional Members receive one copy of the Society's publications and notices, but may not vote. One representative of that institution may register at Society conferences at the lower individual member rate.
Corresponding Membership is available to persons qualified for Full Membership. The intent of Corresponding Membership is to improve participation in the Society by professionals and students from economically disadvantaged regions. Corresponding Members have voting rights, may be elected to office, and may serve as members of standing committees. Corresponding Members are not required to pay dues, and do not receive the Society's journal. Students approved as Corresponding Members have the same rights and privileges as regular Student Members, except that the journal is not received. Corresponding Membership is open only to persons nominated by the Membership Committee or the Board of Governors, and approved by the Board of Governors.
Article V. Elected Officers. Elected Officers of the Society include a President, a President-elect, a Secretary, a Treasurer, two Members-At-Large, and one Student Member-At-Large of the Board of Governors. These officers will be nominated biennially at the General Members Meeting and elected by secret ballot circulated electronically or by mail to all voting members as soon thereafter as is feasible. A plurality of those casting ballots is required for election.
Article VI. Terms of Office. The President serves a two-year term and may not directly succeed himself or herself.
The President-elect succeeds the President and serves a two-year term.
The Secretary and Treasurer serve two-year terms and may be re-elected for any number of terms.
The Members-At-Large of the Board of Governors serve staggered four-year terms and may not directly succeed themselves.
The Student Member-At-Large shall serve a two-year term and may not directly succeed himself or herself
The officers will hold office until their successors are elected.
Article VII. Standing Committees. These consist of a Membership Committee, a Committee of Scientific Advisors, a Conference Committee, a Scientific Program Committee, an Education Committee, an Awards and Scholarships Committee, a Nominations/Election Committee, a Board of Editors, an International Relations Committee, an Ethics Committee, a Conservation Committee, and a Student Affairs Committee. With the exception of the Student Affairs Committee, the chairperson of each of these committees will be appointed by the elected officers, serve a two-year term and may be reappointed for any number of terms. Chairpersons of Standing Committees serve at the pleasure of the Board of Governors. The chairperson of the Student Affairs Committee will be the current Student Member-at-Large. The term of Editor for Marine Mammal Science (also Chairperson of the Board of Editors) will be for a minimum of three years.
Article VIII. The Board of Governors. The voting members of the Board of Governors consist of the elected officers and the chairpersons of the Standing Committees and are the policy-making body of the Society.
Article IX. Finances. The Society will be supported by annual dues of the membership, by the proceeds of the sale of publications or some other items it may issue with the approval of the Board of Governors, and from such property or funds as it may acquire. All elected officers and Standing Committee chairpersons serve gratis although the Society may hire professional staff as needed. The finances of the Society will be audited by an accredited accounting firm at least once every six years.
Article X. Recall. Any officer may be removed from office at any time by a two-thirds majority of the entire membership using a secret electronic or mail ballot. Such a recall election can be called by a petition signed by 20 percent of the voting members.
Article XI. Order of Succession. Vacancies of offices will be filled until the next election by succession in the following order: President-elect, Secretary, Treasurer, Senior Member-At-Large, Junior Member-At-Large.
An officer who succeeds to the position of President-elect will not succeed to the Presidency unless elected by the membership in a regular election.
Article XII. Changes in the Constitution, Bylaws, and General Policies. The Constitution may be modified by a majority vote of the entire membership by secret electronic or mail ballot. The Bylaws may be modified by a majority vote by secret ballot of the members present at any General Members Meeting of the Society. General Policies of the Society may be modified by a majority vote of the Board of Governors.
Article XIII. Dissolution. Upon winding up and dissolution of the Corporation, after paying or adequately providing for the debts and obligations of the Corporation, the remaining assets shall be distributed to a non-profit fund, foundation or corporation, which is organized and operated exclusively for charitable, educational or religious and/or scientific purposes and which has established its tax-exempt status under Section 501(C)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code.
Article XIV. Tax Exemption. Notwithstanding any other provisions of these articles, the Corporation shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on by a corporation exempt from United States federal income taxes under Section 501(C)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1954.
Bylaws of the Society for Marine Mammalogy
As amended by vote at the General Member's Meeting on 16 October 2009 and a vote of the membership in May 2010.
Article I. Duties of Officers
Section 1. President
The President is the executive officer of the Society and will preside over the General Members Meetings convened at each Biennial Conference and meetings of the Board of Governors.
Section 2. President-elect
The President-elect will:
- Assume the duties of the President in his/her absence.
- Serve as a member of the Board of Governors.
- Succeed to the presidency at the completion of the President's term of office.
- Monitor the Society’s Constitution, Bylaws, and General Operating Policies for consistency and currency.
Section 3. Secretary
The Secretary will:
- Keep and report minutes of all meetings of the Board of Governors and the business meetings of the general membership.
- Receive, process and maintain a complete file of Society correspondence.
- Maintain an historical record of the Society.
- Oversee the management of the Society’s Archives and ensure that they contain all Society publications and other relevant materials.
- Serve as a member of the Board of Governors. In the event the offices of Secretary and Treasurer are vested in a single person, this person will have a single vote in the deliberations of the Board of Governors.
- Transfer all records and files to his or her successor upon completion of a term of office.
Section 4. Treasurer
The Treasurer will:
- Manage all dues and other monies of the Society and maintain accurate accounts of such funds.
- Countersign all checks issued for payment by the Society.
- Disburse Society funds upon receipt of proper business invoices covering legitimate Society business expenses.
- At least twice a year, review with the President and President-Elect the financial status of the Society and projected income and expenses for the current year
- Provide a financial statement and projected budget of the Society annually to meetings of the Board of Governors for its review and approval.
- Prepare and present a complete report of Society finances at each General Members Meeting of the Society.
- Establish and Chair an ad hoc Committee of Financial Advisors to advise the Board on the management of the Society’s investments.
- Under direction of the Board of Governors supervise Society investments with input from the Ad Hoc Committee of Financial Advisors.
- Secure the services of a qualified CPA to prepare the Society’s annual federal and state” not-for-profit” income reports.
- Schedule and ensure the conduct of an audit of the Society’s finances at least once every six years.
- Transfer all records and files to his or her successor upon completion of a term of office.
Section 5. Members-At-Large
- One of the two Members-At-Large will be designated by the President as Society Parliamentarian and will be the senior Member-At-Large.
- Both Members-At-Large and the Student Member-At-Large are voting members of the Board of Governors.
Article II. Duties of the Board of Governors.
The Board of Governors is the executive body of the Society. It will, among other duties, consider and suggest locations for future Biennial Conferences and other meetings to the membership, propose dues adjustments and other fees to the general membership, provide approval on the suitability of publications, position papers, or statements to be issued in the name of the Society, decide on motions of censure or expulsion, supervise Society finances, handle legal aspects of Society operation, approve the filling of vacancies on the Board of Governors as described in Article XI of the Constitution or appoint interim replacements for Board members who vacate their positions before the end of their elected or appointed terms, propose Standing Committees to be established by a vote of the membership, establish ad hoc committees, and assist the President in carrying out the executive work of the Society.
The Board of Governors should convene no less than annually, by conference call or in person.
The President will arrange for meetings of the Board of Governors.
Article III. Membership of the Standing Committees.
The Chairpersons of Standing Committees shall be appointed by the elected officers, and propose committee members for approval by the Board of Governors. Standing Committees should include at least one Student Member. The Student Affairs Committee will be chaired by the Student Member-at-Large and its Student Members will preferably represent broad geographic coverage. Members of the Standing Committees serve at the pleasure of the Chairperson during his or her term of office.
Article IV. Charges of Standing Committees.
Section 1. Membership Committee
The Membership Committee solicits, receives and reviews membership applications, receives annual membership fees and notifies members of delinquencies, maintains the members' area on the Society's website including the membership database with the listing of current Society members, and may itself propose new members. With Board of Governors’ approval, a “Membership Manager” may be hired under contract to manage membership activities under the supervision of the Membership Committee Chair.
Section 2. Committee of Scientific Advisors
The Committee of Scientific Advisors is responsible for providing the Board of Governors such scientific information as may be requested. The Committee of Scientific Advisors shall manage and administer the Society's "Small Grants in Aid of Research" program.
Section 3. Conference Committee
The Conference Committee is responsible for making all necessary arrangements for Biennial Conferences, with concurrence of the Board of Governors, including scheduling and arranging facilities and other amenities. The Conference Committee will make arrangements for facilities for workshops associated with the conference to be convened, but will not be responsible for the conduct of any such workshops.
Section 4. Board of Editors
The Board of Editors is responsible for the development, selection, design, editing, publication and distribution of such publications as the Society may sponsor.
Section 5. Education Committee
The Education Committee is responsible for duties such as the dissemination of fact sheets and information on careers, facilities, programs, and institutions. The Committee is responsible for producing and communicating with the Society’s Web-Master to disseminate online information pertaining directly to the Education Committee.
Section 6. Scientific Program Committee
The Scientific Program Committee is responsible for arranging for scientific programs for conferences, meetings and workshops.
Section 7. Awards and Scholarship Committee
The Awards and Scholarship Committee is responsible for establishing policies relating to awards and scholarships. The Committee also oversees the development, judging, and granting of the awards and scholarships of the Society, with the exception of the Small Grants in Aid of Research program which is administered by the Committee of Scientific Advisors.
Section 8. Nominations/Election Committee
The Nominations/Election Committee provides the Board of Governors with a slate of candidates for elective offices, collaborates with the Secretary and the Membership Manager to produce and transmit electronic and/or mail ballots to voting members, and verifies ballot counts.
Section 9. International Relations Committee
The International Relations Committee advises the Board of Governors on specific issues and actions concerning contributions to libraries and academic institutions who otherwise could not afford subscriptions to the Society's journal, contributions to non-student members from developing nations that require assistance to participate in the Society's Biennial Conferences, and other such activities.
Section 10. Ethics Committee
The Ethics Committee will provide oversight and guidance to the Board on the ethical considerations for all Society activities, publications, and products. The Ethics Committee will develop and periodically review and revise as necessary the Society’s policy on ethical science activities.
Section 11. Student Affairs Committee
The Student Affairs Committee is responsible for overseeing and promoting student involvement within the Society, which requires organizing a workshop at the Biennial Conference, coordinating student travel grants to the Biennial Conference, facilitating Society Student Chapters, and otherwise engaging and communicating with Student Members.
Section 12. Conservation Committee
The Conservation Committee advises the Board of Governors on matters related to the conservation and management of marine mammals and provides the Board of Governors with information that may be requested from time to time. The Conservation Committee will develop Presidential Letters as a mechanism to provide timely comment on the evidence base for issues related to the conservation and management of marine mammals where the majority of the Society's membership likely would hold the same opinion.
Article V. Votes.
Section 1. All votes of the Society on matters not specified in the Constitution or Bylaws will be decided by a simple majority of those voting.
Section 2. Tie votes in General Members Meetings or in meetings of the Board of Governors will be broken by the presiding officer. Tie votes in Standing Committee meetings will be broken by the Chairperson.
Section 3. Regardless of the number of candidates running for a particular office, the individual who receives the most votes (a plurality) shall be elected.
Article VI. Rules of Procedure.
All meetings will be governed by Roberts' Rules of Order.
Article VII. Quorum.
Ten percent of the voting membership will constitute a quorum of the Society and five members a quorum of the Board of Governors.
Article VIII. Resolutions.
Section 1. Resolutions will be received by the Board of Governors at any time. Resolutions concerned with matters of science or policy received more than two months before a General Members Meeting and approved by the Board of Governors for submission to the members will be open for discussion and a vote at that meeting. Those resolutions concerned with matters of science or policy received less than two months (60 days) prior to the next General Members Meeting will not be discussed at that meeting but, if approved by the Board of Governors for submission to the members, may later be submitted to the membership for a vote.
Section 2. Each resolution must contain the following information before it can be considered: (1) a short statement of the need for the resolution; (2) accurate scientific documentation concerning the circumstances of the resolution; (3) a list of proposed recipients of the resolution.
Section 3. The Board of Governors will refer the resolutions to the appropriate Standing Committee for study, after which it will be approved, denied or recommended for emendation by the Board of Governors. If approved, it will be submitted to the membership, along with a short documented discussion of the reason for the resolution, for a vote. A two-thirds majority of those voting is required for ratification.
Section 4. Once the resolution has been released by the Society the appropriate Standing Committee will be instructed to determine the effect of the resolution and to recommend further action by the Board of Governors.
Section 5. Resolutions of recognition may be presented and voted upon at a General Members Meeting. A two-thirds majority is required for passage.
Article IX. Meetings.
General Members Meetings will be held during the Society's Biennial Conference and will be announced to all members by mail and electronically at least two months in advance.
Article X. Honorary Members.
In recognition of distinguished service to field of marine mammalogy, and on the unanimous recommendation of the Board of Governors, Honorary Members may be elected by a two-thirds vote of the Members. Honorary Members have all the privileges of Members but are exempt from dues. No more than two (2) Honorary Members may be nominated and elected during any biennial cycle.
Article XI. Geographic Coverage of the Society.
The Society is open to persons throughout the world.
Article XII. Financial Reporting.
The Treasurer will give a detailed accounting of the financial status of the Society at each General Members Meeting of the Society.
Article XIII. Dues.
Current membership dues are published in each issue of Marine Mammal Science and posted on the Society’s website.
Membership dues are reviewed by the Board annually and recommended adjustments made accordingly to meet the operational expenses of the Society. Adjustments to the dues must be approved by a majority of the members by vote at a General Members Meeting or by electronic or mail ballot. Proposed adjustments are published in the Society’s website at least 60 days before a vote.
All dues are to be paid in U.S. dollars. Membership, other than life, and may be renewed on the Society's website or by mail at any time during the year.
Article XIV. Fiscal Year.
The fiscal year of the Society will begin the first day of the calendar year.
Article XV. General Members Meetings (formerly Biennial Business Meetings)
The order of business at General Members Meetings will be as follows: reading and approval of the minutes of the last General Members Meeting; the Treasurer's report; proposals for honorary membership; nomination of officers; reports and recommendations of the Board of Governors; consideration of amendments to the bylaws; Standing Committee reports; awards; discussion of resolutions; new business; and adjournment.
Article XVI. Society Internet Website
The Society will support and maintain the internet website www.marinemammalogy.org (aka www.marinemammalscience.org) to facilitate the dissemination of information about the Society, including membership information, subscription service, Membership Directory, which contains current addresses, telephone numbers and e-mail addresses for all members, conference information, text of Presidential Letters and responses from the recipients, minutes of the General Members Meetings, general information including the Society's Constitution, Bylaws, Policies, listing of Society Officers, Committee Chairs, Honorary Members, student chapters, issues of concern, awards, grants and other relevant Society information. The website will also be used to receive funds for memberships, conferences, and other activities as approved by the Board of Governors. The website will be the primary tool the Society uses to contact the membership about issues such as voting, conference site selection, and to authorize access to the journal Marine Mammal Science online and other member-only information. The website may also be used to promote discussions among members about topics related to marine mammal science. The Board of Governors may hire a Web-Master to manage the operation of the website. The Web-Master shall report to the President. The Board of Governors, Editor, and committee chairs will be responsible for coordinating with the Web-Master to post content as it pertains to their mandates.
General Operating Policies of the Society for Marine Mammalogy
Approved at the November 5-6, 2010 meeting of the Board of Governors
General operating policies are regularly reviewed by the Board of Governors and may be modified as appropriate by a majority vote of the members of the Board of Governors to maintain the orderly conduct of the Society’s business.
1. ELECTED OFFICERS
1.1 Composition of the elected officers of the Board of Governors will be selected by a biennial election. The new Board of Governors will assume duties on 1 July following the election.
1.2 The President-elect will verify election results by making a second count of ballots and reporting the results to the Board of Governors.
1.3 All past Presidents are automatically members of the Board of Governors, but do not have voting privileges.
1.4 All officers must be Society members at the time of nomination and during their period of service.
1.5 The Board of Governors will meet annually and hold a board meeting the day preceding and the day following the Biennial Conference. Travel expenses to annual board meetings will be paid at the discretion of the Board. Scheduling and location of Board meetings during non-conference years will be determined by the President in consultation with the Board.
1.6 The incoming Board of Governors shall review the performance and composition of all committees and recommend committee chairs, membership and duties.
1. 7 The President will ensure that invitations are issued to members to serve on Society committees.
1.8 The President will issue written invitations to those individuals elected as Honorary Members of the Society.
1.9 At the beginning of each new term of office, the incoming and outgoing Presidents jointly will conduct an internal audit of Society financial affairs in consultation with the Treasurer.
1.10 The President and President-elect will work with the Conference and Program Committee Chairs to ensure the organization of the upcoming conference and also to ensure that options for the next biennial conference are available.
1.11 The President-elect will provide to the Board of Governors one or more options for organizers and locations of the next biennial conference. After approval by the Board, a presentation by the organizers will be made to the Membership at the General Members Meeting. These presentations should include details about costs, conference dates, modes of travel to the site, facilities and organizers. If there is more than one proposed conference site, the Membership will select the venue by majority vote on the election ballot.
1.12 For actions requiring a vote of the entire voting membership, the Secretary will work with the Nominations/Elections Committee Chair to prepare ballots. The ballots will then be provided to the webmaster for posting on the Society's website. Voting will be conducted via the website through the members’ area.
1.13 The Society's Publisher provides the Society's Treasurer and Journal Editor with quarterly accounting reports for all expenses associated with the production and publication of the Society's Journal (i.e., Marine Mammal Science).
1.14 The Treasurer: receives and monitors all revenues received from the Society's Publisher, the Membership Committee including membership dues and related fees, the Conference Committee (including proceeds from the Biennial Conference, donations and contributions for awards or scholarships), and other revenues; issues payment for Society-related business expenses approved by the Board of Governors including those associated with the publication of the Society's journal; disburses monetary awards and scholarships; oversees the Society's general cash and investment funds; and assists with the resolution of any Society related financial issues that may arise.
1.15 The Treasurer provides the Board of Governors with a comprehensive annual review and accounting of the Society's finances and investments.
1.16 The Treasurer is responsible for overseeing the preparation and submission to the Internal Revenue Service the Society's annual "Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax" (i.e., IRS Form 990), and State of California annual "California Exempt Organization Annual Information Return" (i.e., California Form 199) and other such reports and information regarding the Society’s financial affairs.
1.17 The Senior Member-at-Large will be the Parliamentarian at Board of Governor Meetings and at General Members Meetings to ensure the meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order.
1.18 The Student Member-at-Large must be enrolled as a graduate student in a degree granting institution at the time of his/her nomination. This Student Member-at-Large will be a spokesperson for the concerns and goals of the Student Members of the Society, and chair the Student Affairs Committee.
2.1 MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE
2.1.1 MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE publishes significant new information resulting from original research and observations on marine mammals, their form, evolution, function, husbandry, health, populations and ecological relationships.
2.1.2 The Journal endorses the principle that research, investigations, and experiments using live animals should be undertaken only for the purpose of advancing knowledge. Consideration should be given to the appropriateness of experimental procedures, species of animals used and number of animals required. All animal experimentation reported in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE must be conducted in conformity with the relevant animal care codes and research permits of the country in which the study is conducted, and be consistent with any guidelines the Society should produce and endorse. The Editor will determine if manuscripts adhere to such guidelines as a requirement for their consideration of publication in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE.
2.1.3 MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE publishes (l) Articles: important original research; (2) Review Articles: critical appraisals which place recent research in a new conceptual framework; (3) Notes: short communications on current research, important preliminary findings or new techniques; (4) Opinion: invited contribution on a selected topic; (5) Letters: communications in response to papers previously published in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, opinion, interpretation and new information on all topics of interest to marine mammalogists.
2.1.4 Articles, Review Articles and Notes are subject to peer review. Any Letter challenging published results or interpretations is transmitted to the author of the published work with an invitation to respond. The letter and its response are published simultaneously. Letters are judged by the Editor on appropriateness of the subject and interest to readers.
2.1.5 A Guide for Authors is posted on the Society's website. This information should be consulted before preparing any manuscript for submission to MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE.
2.1.6 All manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter stating: (1) that the work is original; (2) that the same work has not been published previously; (3) that the work is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere; (4) that all authors have seen and approved the final manuscript; and (5) that any person cited as a source of personal communication has approved such citations.
2.1.7 Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the general understanding that if it is accepted for publication, copyright of the article, including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media, shall be assigned exclusively to The Society for Marine Mammalogy. The Society will not refuse any reasonable request by the author for permission to reproduce, in whole or part, his/her contribution to MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE.
2.1.8 Authors of manuscripts that are accepted for publication in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE will be asked to pay page charges if funds are available. In the event that funds are not available to the author, a waiver of page charges will be granted by the Society upon application to the Editor. Absent a waiver of page charges, an author’s manuscript will be published in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE only after the appropriate page charges have been paid. Current page charge rates are listed in the journal’s GUIDE TO AUTHORS and may be increased or reduced by approval of the Society’s Board of Governors.
2.1.9 The Editor appoints a Board of Associate Editors to provide guidance and assistance with editorial policies and the evaluation of submitted manuscripts. Associate Editors must be members of the Society and confirmed by the Society’s Board of Governors. One member of the Board of Associate Editors may be designated Deputy Editor. The Deputy Editor serves as editor if for any reason the Editor is unable to perform his or her duties for extended periods or due to a conflict of interest. Once the Deputy Editor is made Acting Editor for a period of time or for a particular manuscript, the Deputy Editor will have complete and sole authority for all aspects of the job of Editor, including decision making, until the return of responsibility to the Editor. In the case of a conflict of interest, once the Deputy Editor has been asked to act on behalf of the Editor, the Deputy Editor will remain the decision making authority through the review process and a final decision is made on the manuscript. The Editor will not have access to the manuscript or any of the documents related to it once the Deputy Editor has been assigned as Acting Editor. In the case of manuscripts handled as a result of extended absences by the Editor, it will be the decision of the Acting Editor as to whether to follow the process to completion on a given manuscript or turn it back to the Editor upon return to his or her duty as Editor.
2.1.10 A claim of potential conflict of interest on the part of the Editor may be made by the Editor, who would then recuse himself or herself or seek advice from the Society’s Ethics Advisory Committee. An author or member of the Society may also make a claim of conflict of interest by the Editor (or Associate Editor). Such claims should be made to the Chair of the Society’s Ethics Advisory Committee, who should notify the Editor as soon as a claim of conflict of interest has been received. If a review is in progress, any actions should be suspended until a decision on the claim is made by the Ethics Advisory Committee. The Ethics Advisory Committee will then determine by vote of its members whether there is a basis for the claim and whether the Editor (or Associate Editor) should recuse him or herself from handling the manuscript in question. If the decision is for the Editor to recuse him or herself, the Deputy Editor will be made Acting Editor and the process described in Section 2.1.9 becomes effective. If the claim pertains to an Associate Editor, the Editor should notify the Associate Editor as soon as the claim is made and refrain from making a decision based on the Associate Editor’s recommendation, if the manuscript has reached that stage, until a ruling is made by the Ethics Advisory Committee. If the Ethics Advisory Committee determines the Associate Editor should recuse himself or herself, the Editor shall either handle the review process based on the reviewers input directly (i.e., become the Associate Editor) or assign a new Associate Editor.
2.1.11 The term of Editor for MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE (also Chairperson of the Board of Editors) will be for a minimum of three years. A written agreement should be signed by both parties to provide a record for successive Presidents and Boards of Governors. For good cause, either the Board of Governors (by majority vote) or the Editor can terminate the agreement early.
2.1.12 MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE will accept advertising relating to scientific books, materials and equipment at the discretion of the Editor.
2.2 SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
2.2.1 The Society for Marine Mammalogy regards its journal, MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, as a primary avenue for publication of new information on marine mammals. Occasionally, a body of information on a particular aspect of marine mammal study is inappropriate for publication in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE. Examples include monographic reports which are too long for publication in the Journal; edited collections of review articles on various aspects of a particular subject; or edited collections of papers addressing a particular topic where there is a justifiable need to keep the papers together, rather than to publish each separately as journal articles. To meet these needs, the Society has established a Special Publication Series.
2.2.2 The Board of Editors of MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE has final responsibility for the scientific content of publications in the Special Publications Series. The Board of Governors of the Society makes the final decision on any expenditure of Society funds for publications.
2.2.3 Authors or editors considering publication of their material in the Special Publications Series should contact the Editor of MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE as early as possible to ascertain the suitability of the proposed work as a Special Publication. A set of guidelines to assist potential contributors to this series is available from the Editor for Special Publications.
2.3. MARINE MAMMAL SOCIETY NEWS
2.3.1. Reports of news, issues, opportunities, symposia, conferences, workshops, texts of Society Presidential Letters on various issues of concern to the membership, responses to Presidential letters, and other topics of general interest to the membership, along with special reports of standing and ad hoc committees, and questionnaires and ballots relating to Society activities and business shall be posted on the society’s website. Letters to the Editor originally intended for MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE will be included as news on the website if, in the opinion of the Editor and the Committee of Scientific Advisors, such Letters are more appropriate to the website than the journal. The Society’s News Coordinator will be responsible for facilitating and posting news on the Society’s website in association with the webmaster.
3.1 All committee members must be Society members during their period of service. There is an expectation that all committees include at least one student member.
3.2 Mailing lists of Society members cannot be distributed without approval of the Board of Governors.
3.3 The Conference and Scientific Program Committees will maintain written guidelines of their procedures for an historical record of biennial conferences.
3.4 All committee chairs will maintain written records of procedures and policies of their committees and at the end of their terms provide these records to the incoming committee chairs, and provide copies of relevant materials to the Secretary for deposit into the Society’s Archives.
3.5 Nomination procedures will ensure that the Society maintains an international and diverse composition by providing a variety of candidates for election relative to gender, nationality and area of scientific expertise. Traditionally, at least one of the Member-at-Large officers has been a non-North American member.
3.6 Ad hoc committees may be established by the Board of Governors.
3.7 Each committee is responsible for producing materials and communicating with the Society’s webmaster to disseminate information pertaining directly to the committee’s activities.
4. STANDING COMMITTEES
4.1 Standing Committees established by the Board of Governors must be approved by a vote of the Membership and added to Constitution Article VII and Bylaws Article IV.
4.2. Membership Committee:
4.2.1 The Membership Committee is responsible for promoting membership in the Society. With the approval of the Board of Governors, the Membership Committee may hire under contract a Membership Manager who shall assist with carrying out the duties and responsibilities of the Membership Committee.
4.2.2 The Membership Committee shall:
18.104.22.168 Approve membership applications, and nominate new Corresponding Members to the Board of Governors, maintain correspondence with current and proposed Society members, and handle questions regarding membership in the Society.
22.214.171.124 Conduct membership drives with other societies to encourage new and former members to join the Society.
126.96.36.199 Review and, where necessary, modify the membership application forms circulated to existing and potential members and potential members through the journal and posted on the Society's website.
188.8.131.52 Maintain the Society's Membership Directory and Members’ Area on the Society's Website. The Membership Chair or the Membership Manager provides to the Publisher the list of names and addresses of current, journal-receiving members for the distribution of the hard copy journal.
4.3. Committee of Scientific Advisors:
4.3.1 The Committee of Scientific Advisors advises the Board of Governors on scientific matters and provides the Board of Governors with information that may be requested from time to time. The Committee of Scientific Advisors will work closely with other elements of the Board and Society members to keep all members informed of current and relevant issues of interest and to ensure that the information provided is based on the best available scientific information.
4.3.2 Editorial responsibility for scientific and technical matters on the Society’s website may be delegated by the News Coordinator to the Committee of Scientific Advisors as required. In such cases the President assists the Committee in reviewing and editing the content of such material.
4.3.3 The Committee of Scientific Advisors shall manage and administer the Society's "Small Grants in Aid of Research" program.
4.4 Education Committee
4.4.1. The Education Committee is responsible for preparing and updating educational material as the Society may, from time to time, deem appropriate for the Society's mission, including, but not limited to, information on educational facilities and programs and marine mammal fact sheets.
4.4.2 The Education Committee shall:
184.108.40.206 Prepare and periodically update the Society's publication on "Strategies for Pursuing a Career in Marine Mammal Science" in both printed and electronic versions posted on the Society's website.
220.127.116.11 Handle relevant correspondence from those interested in marine mammal science.
4.5 Conference Committee
4.5.1 The Conference Committee, with concurrence of the Board of Governors, is responsible for making all necessary arrangements for the upcoming Biennial Conference including scheduling and arranging housing and meeting facilities, the final banquet and other conference amenities. The Conference Committee, with the approval of the Board of Governors, may enlist the aid of a third-party conference consultant and/or company to assist with Conference arrangements for a fee.
4.5.2 The Conference Committee shall:
18.104.22.168 Schedule oral and poster presentations; schedule business meetings and coffee and lunch breaks; arrange for souvenir memorabilia; prepare conference announcements, abstract books, programs, etc.; solicit vendors; raise funds; and make decisions about possible day trips.
22.214.171.124 Adjust program structure to meet local conditions, with the concurrence of the Scientific Program Committee and the Board of Governors.
126.96.36.199 Register all participants at the Biennial Conference.
188.8.131.52 After the Biennial Conference, provide the Treasurer with a financial accounting of conference expenses and spending.
184.108.40.206 Up to $10,000 in conference proceeds will be made available to the Conference Committee as "start up" money for the next Biennial Conference. Any conference proceeds above $10,000 will be deposited into the Society’s general account.
4.6 Scientific Program Committee
4.6.1 The Scientific Program Committee is responsible for arranging scientific programs for meetings, workshops and symposia.
4.6.2 The Scientific Program Committee shall:
220.127.116.11 Develop criteria for reviewing abstracts. Review and select all abstract submissions to be presented at the conference according to standards proposed by the Scientific Program Committee and approved by the Board of Governors.
18.104.22.168 Select session chairs.
22.214.171.124 Finalize arrangements for symposia.
126.96.36.199 Oversee the final arrangements for the scientific program.
188.8.131.52 Develop and maintain a "Guide to Organizing the Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals," which includes such items as setting time limits for oral papers, the number of concurrent sessions, poster format and the number of days of the Biennial Conference.
184.108.40.206 Arrange symposia and plenary topics for future conferences, with the concurrence of the Board of Governors. Persons who wish to organize symposia or workshops are requested to submit their written proposals in detail to the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee as early as two years before the Biennial Conference. The Scientific Program Committee and the Conference Committee Chairs evaluate proposals and decide on appropriate symposia or workshops at least 1 year prior to the Biennial Conference and will notify the Symposia Chairs.
220.127.116.11 In consultation with the President-elect, solicit applications for the hosting of future conferences. Potential hosts are asked to submit a detailed application to the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee and President-elect by 1 September four years in advance of the biennial meeting. Requests from institutions having appropriate facilities will be presented for consideration by the Membership four years in advance of the proposed meeting. If no request is received by the l September deadline, it is the responsibility of the Scientific Program Committee, along with the President-elect, to locate an appropriate host institution. Individuals offering requests for consideration should be present to invite and to respond to questions from the Membership during a General Members meeting. This Committee should periodically encourage the participation of venues outside North America.
4.7. Awards and Scholarship Committee
18.104.22.168 The Awards/Scholarship Committee is charged with detailing the monetary value, method of judging and eligibility for all awards and scholarships given by the Society. Funds contributed for all awards are pooled and invested in the Society's award endowment portfolio of accounts. The interest accrued on the endowment portfolio is prorated annually into each award fund based on the principal amount in a given award fund that year. To guard the principal in each award fund, monetary awards should be paid with the interest earned in that fund. Awards may be supplemented with general Society funds if approved by the Board of Governors.
22.214.171.124 Awards Operating Policies. Named Society Awards can be established in two categories:
a) Corpus Depletion Awards are ones in which the establishers provide a set amount, which can be added to in the future, which will be used to pay a defined award amount, not less than $500 biennially. The named award will cease to exist when the corpus falls below $500 with the remainder being deposited in the general student award account.
b) Sustained Awards are ones in which the establishers provide a minimum of $10,000 and only the income from the investment is used to pay the awards. The minimum award will be $500 biennially unless overall portfolio loses reduce the corpus below $10,000 at which time the award will either not be given or will be given based on 3% of the corpus until such time as the corpus returns to the minimum of $10,000. The decision on whether to give a smaller award or no award will be recommended to the Board of Governors by the Awards and Scholarship Committee.
The Board of Governors may decide to supplement any Named Award with general reserves should the resources available preclude a biennial award of at least $500, but supplementation of Named Awards will occur only for those awards administered through the Awards and Scholarship Committee.
4.7.2 The Awards/Scholarship Committee shall:
126.96.36.199 Establish a Selection Committee and an appropriate system to judge student award winners at each biennial conference of the Society.
188.8.131.52 By working closely with the Conference Committee, minimize the number of student presentations that occur on the last day of the Biennial to ensure that all student spoken and poster presentations judged at Biennial Conferences do not unduly delay the final decisions of the Selection Committee and the presentation of certificates and monetary awards.
184.108.40.206 Ensure that appropriate certificates and/or monetary awards are received by winners in a timely manner.
220.127.116.11 Ensure that outgoing Officers and Committee Chairs are appropriately recognized for their service to the Society.
18.104.22.168 Ensure that a list of award winners is published as news on the Website.
22.214.171.124 This Committee also oversees the development of new Awards and Scholarships. The name of each new award is determined by the donor, as are the selection criteria for disbursement of the prize; however, investment decisions must be made by the Society's Board of Governors. Award winners are to be decided by the Awards/Scholarship Committee or its designated Selection Committee.
4.7.3 Awards: The following awards currently are recognized and may be presented at the conclusion of The Society for Marine Mammalogy Biennial Conference:
126.96.36.199 Best Spoken Presentation by a Doctoral Student: A cash award and a certificate given to the Doctoral student who receives the highest rating by the Selection Committee for spoken presentation at the Conference.
188.8.131.52 Best Poster Presentation by a Doctoral Student: A cash award and a certificate given to the Doctoral student who receives the highest rating by the Selection Committee for a poster presentation at the Conference.
184.108.40.206 Best Spoken Presentation by a Masters or Bachelors Student: A cash award and a certificate given to a student registered in either a Master of Science (Arts) or Bachelor of Science (Arts) program who receives the highest rating by the Selection Committee for a spoken presentation at the Conference.
220.127.116.11 Best Poster Presentation by a Masters or Bachelors Student: A cash award and a certificate given to a student registered in either a Master of Science (Arts) or Bachelor of Science (Arts) program who receives the highest rating by the Selection Committee for a poster presentation at the Conference.
18.104.22.168 John G. Shedd Aquarium Outstanding Student Award: A cash award and a certificate given to the student who receives the overall highest rating by the Selection Committee for either a poster or spoken presentation given at the Conference.
22.214.171.124 Robin Best Memorial Fund Award: Cash awards given to South American marine mammalogy students for the best poster and the best oral presentation at meetings of the South American Specialists in Aquatic Mammals. Award winners are announced at the Biennial Conference and published as news on the website.
126.96.36.199 Frederic Fairfield Memorial Fund Award: A cash award and certificate given to a student who has conducted innovative research in the field of marine mammal biology. The purpose of this award is to acknowledge and support young scientists who have developed or applied pioneering techniques or research tools for studying marine mammals.
188.8.131.52 Excellence in Science Communication Award: Cash awards or art work given to non-student conference participants for the best poster and the best oral presentation. Criteria for judging will concentrate more on creative and effective communication of ideas, rather than scientific veracity, although scientific method and accuracy will be considered.
184.108.40.206 F. G. Wood Memorial Scholarship: An award presented to the best student paper published in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE during the period between the Society's Biennial Conferences. The award includes an opportunity to present the winning paper at the Plenary Session of the Biennial Conference, and funds to cover costs of participation in the Conference (registration, travel, lodging, meals, and necessary incidental expenses). Judging of eligible papers will be done by the Editor in consultation with the Board of Editors. Students wishing to enter the competition should so state at the time a paper is submitted to the Editor for review.
220.127.116.11 John R. Twiss, Jr. Award: A cash award given to a graduate or post-doctoral student for innovative research related to marine mammal habitat and ecosystem conservation that is published in MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE. To be eligible, the student must be the senior author and the paper must have been published within three years of the student’s graduation.
18.104.22.168 Stu Innes Memorial Student Travel Bursary: Given to assist the travel of a graduate student conducting marine mammal research in the Arctic to the Society’s Biennial Conference to give a spoken or poster presentation.
22.214.171.124 J. Steven Leatherwood Memorial Award: A cash award recognizing the most outstanding presentation on marine mammals in South and Southeast Asia given at the Society’s Biennial Conference. Criteria for judging place an emphasis on conservation and that the researcher(s) is/are ‘financially-challenged’.
126.96.36.199 Kenneth S. Norris Lifetime Achievement Award: A lifetime achievement award, honoring a career of excellence in scientific research on any aspect of marine mammalogy. The award recipient would be expected to deliver a full length (45-min. to 1-hour.) lecture at the biennial meeting and to submit a written paper from their lecture for publication in Marine Mammal Science. The Norris Lecture would be delivered during the conference to maximize the opportunity for attendance. A nomination committee of four people (the President, President- elect, Chair of the Committee Scientific Advisors, and Journal Editor) will develop a list of four nominees for the award. The award recipient would be selected from this group by a collective vote of the Board of Governors of the Society and the Board of Associate Editors of Marine Mammal Science. The award would be principally one of public recognition and acclaim. However, the recipient’s travel, lodging, per diem, conference registration, banquet ticket, will be provided by the Society. The award also includes a life-time membership to the Society.
188.8.131.52 John E. Heyning Research Award: A cash award provided in support of the best proposal received from an established researcher to investigate any aspect of cetacean integrative biology - comparative studies that relate diverse aspects of biology within an evolutionary context.
4.8 Nominations/Elections Committee
4.8.1 The responsibility of the Nominations/Election Committee is to provide the Board of Governors with a slate of no more than two candidates per office, produce and mail and/or transmit electronically the ballots, and count the ballots. The Committee shall consist of at least three Society members appointed by the Nominations/Elections Committee Chair and approved by the Board of Governors. None of these appointed members shall be a voting member of the Board of Governors.
4.8.2 In addition to the Board of Governors-approved slate of candidates, additional candidates may be nominated by Society members during General Members’ meetings at biennial conferences. All candidates must be current members of the Society, be willing to serve as a member of the Board of Governors and provide a one paragraph background and vision statement (not to exceed 150 words) for use on the ballot, except for President-Elect candidates which may provide a background and vision statement of up to 300 words.
4.8.3 Information regarding upcoming elections shall be published on the Society’s web site at least 120 days prior to the General Members Meeting. Ballots shall be counted by the Nominations/Election Committee and verified by the President. In elections involving more than two candidates for a single office, the candidate receiving the plurality of votes is elected.
4.9 International Relations Committee
4.9.1 The International Relations Committee develops mechanisms to ensure active involvement in the Society of scientists, professionals and students from countries other than the U.S. and Canada. The Committee addresses issues of international interest, particularly those pertaining to costs associated with participating in Society meetings and accessing Society publications, such as membership fees, awards, and distribution of MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE to libraries. The Committee reviews applications for conference support for non-student marine mammal scientists from developing and soft-currency countries and recommends candidates to the Board of Governors for such support.
4.10 The Ethics Advisory Committee
4.10.1 The Ethics Advisory Committee will inform the Society’s Board of Governors and Society members of ethical considerations for marine mammal science. The Chair of the Ethics Advisory Committee will oversee the review and suggested revisions to the Society’s “Ethics Guidelines” and report to the Board of Governors on necessary considerations for revisions to those guidelines. Under certain circumstances the Ethics Advisory Committee may need to bring issues to the Board. This will be done when a decision can not be reached by a vote or if the Ethics Advisory Committee Chair feels that a matter it is reviewing is of significant controversy or sensitivity that guidance from the Board is advisable.
4.11 Student Affairs Committee
4.11.1 The Student Affairs Committee shall:
184.108.40.206 Organize a Student Affairs Workshop and other potential student activities to be held at the Biennial Conferences, which would ideally emphasize acquiring skill and advice from professionals, as well as fostering connections between Student members.
220.127.116.11 Develop and implement a scheme to distribute student travel grants to the Biennial Conferences that may or may not take into account geographical residence or other factors.
18.104.22.168 Facilitate and encourage the formation of Society Student Chapters, which includes maintaining, updating, and implementing the Student Chapter Guidelines and Application Form.
22.214.171.124 Communicate relevant information to Student Members and provide the Board of Governors with information relating to student affairs.
4.12 The Conservation Committee:
4.12.1 The Conservation Committee advises the Board of Governors on matters related to the conservation and management of marine mammals and provides the Board of Governors with information that may be requested from time to time.
4.12.2 The Conservation Committee develops Presidential Letters as a mechanism to provide timely comment on the evidence base for issues related to the conservation and management of marine mammals where the majority of the Society's membership likely would hold the same opinion.
5. AD HOC COMMITTEES
5.1 AD HOC COMMITTEE OF FINANCIAL ADVISORS
5.1.1 The Treasurer chairs an ad hoc Committee of Financial Advisors to advise the Board of Governors on long-term Society investments and significant financial considerations. Where possible, the Investment Committee will study and advise the Board of Governors on investment opportunities favoring "Socially Responsible Investments." Through the Treasurer, this committee will report to the Board of Governors and to the Membership at the General Members meeting.
5.2 AD HOC TAXONOMIC COMMITTEE
5.1.2 The ad hoc Committee on Taxonomy maintains the official SMM list of marine mammal species and subspecies. The list is posted on the Society’s website. The committee provides advice on taxonomic usage in response to inquiries from the members of the Society.